Wednesday, May 20, 2020
10/07/2016 Astrobiology and Its Relation to the Environment I grew up in a fairly average Los Angeles suburb, so I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the tight knit connection with nature that some from more rural locations might have. My interaction with nature in my early years was quite limited. I went on a few hikes with my family and occasionally went to the beach. But the one aspect of nature IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been fascinated with is space. While this may not be what most of us think of the Ã¢â¬Å"environmentÃ¢â¬ , it has deeply impacted the way I see the world. What initially got me interested in the subject was when Pluto lost its status as a planet. I was only eight at the time, but I had an incredible teacher, Mr. Reefman, who spent a whole day on a lesson about Pluto and why the changes were made. This may have sparked a latent interest IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always had, and ever since IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been focused on Astrobiology. This specifically is the study of potential life in space and how humans may one day be able to settle on a foreign body. This even effected what major I picked, which is Biology, and the fact that IÃ¢â¬â¢m planning to go to graduate school for either astrophysics or astronomy. During the time IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been interested in Astrobiology, though, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned about the reasons why itÃ¢â¬â¢s vital for the future of humanity. And in conjunction with learning about the stars I also wound up learning about how fragile our own planet is. This led me to develop the idea that Astrobiology should be taught in schools becau seShow MoreRelatedPsychology : Nature Vs Nurture869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbeen mainly geared towards discovering parts of the brain, and the environment that influences our behavior as individuals. In other words, research aims to provide reasons why people behave the way they do, and what makes individuals different from each other. Much to the joy of experts in the field, major strides have been made in not only understanding, but also predicting human behavior. Concepts such as the influence of nature versus nurture on personal development, introversion or extroversionRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture928 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmentioned briefly in my self-introduction post, the nature-nurture portion of our textbook is the one part of this course I stated I looked forward to the most. I have always found myself engaged in a constant internal battle regarding nature versus nurture. Adding to this internal battle is the fact that I am married to an identical twinÃ¢â ¬ ¦a twin who drastically differs from his brother in several ways. These differences between my husband and his twin have resulted in my questioning if the geneRead MoreThe Child s Home And School Life1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshow the home and classroom environments foster, create, and hinder the growth of my intellectually gifted student, it is important to consider the different relationships in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s home and school life. Urie Bronfenbrenner created the ecological model of human development in which he considered the relationships of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s different environments as a part of their development (Bronfenbrenner, 1994). The microsystem is composed of the relationships and interactions that the child directlyRead MoreAnalysis Of On Habit And Adam Gopnik1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand their interaction with our surroundings. The kind of action that occurs as two or more objects be it living or non-living have an effect upon one another is called interact ion. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction and also how much we interact and to what degree is also influenced by multiple factors. Both Alain de Botton, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"On HabitÃ¢â¬ and Adam Gopnik, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"Bumping into Mr., RavioliÃ¢â¬ talk about our interaction with our environment and howRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development1060 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesforces, memories, and conflicts that are usually unconsciousnessÃ¢â¬ ().Following, the behavior perspective emphasizing on the observable behaviors and Ã¢â¬Å"outside stimuli from the environmentÃ¢â¬ . () This approach believed that the Ã¢â¬Å"full understanding of development is by carefully studying the stimuli that composed the environmentÃ¢â¬ . (pg15). ______The cognitive approach examines the root of understanding and it Ã¢â¬Å"focuses on the process that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world. (p17)Ã¢â¬ Read MoreThe Traits Of Non Human Primates1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGorillas), I try to find out their characteristics, pattern of their behavior, and differences between these two primate species. Especially, characteristics and behavior such as social interaction, food acquisition and intelligence will be discussed and compared in this paper. In order to enhance the persuasiveness of my observation, I recorded and examined at least 25 distinct characteristics of both Common Squirrel Monkeys and Western Gorillas. It is also helpful for me to compare these two primatesRead MoreNature Vs Nurture Essay1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPsychologically, nature can be termed as the genetic predispositions impact on human traits. Nurture on the other hand, refers to the influence that learning has on the behavior of pers ons. The influence of learning is exclusively obtained from the environment. Scholars and lay people continue to argue about whether the strengths and weaknesses of people are as a result of their inherited traits or the ones acquired through learning from the environment. Great social implications have been drawnRead MoreBiomolecules In Biology1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfascinated in understanding about the ecological and biological processes of aquatic organisms and their interaction with the environment, especially their response and impacts of greenhouse gases. My past research focused on methods development for detecting and quantifying key elements and chemical compounds that actively influence the growth and distribution of aquatic organisms, and their interaction to environmental change. Environmental proteomics, genomic and biochemical studies in the biomineralizationRead MoreThe Between Undergrad And Grad Essay1067 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesno need to be competitive with peopl e in the program because we are all exploring different topics as we discover our niche. Peer Demographics. During my undergrad, my peers were more or less my same age and had similar backgrounds. In contrast, in grad school the age and experience level of my peers significantly varies. Like myself, some of my classmates are younger and new to the professional world whereas others are more seasoned with 20 plus years under their belt. Despite these differencesRead MoreThe Complex Nature Of The Nursing Profession1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn my relatively short tenure as a nurse I have come to understand and firmly believe that the nursing profession is widely misinterpreted and sometimes viewed by the public as a systematic, task driven, emotionally simplistic and withdrawn profession. When in reality the nursing professionÃ¢â¬â¢s complex nature requires those involved to stay current, active and embracing a dynamic approach to their interactions. A dynamic nature is required in order to be successful in nursing, as adaptive change,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Application of Feminist and Family Violence Janine LatusÃ¢â¬â¢ If I am Missing or Dead is a true story that incorporates various aspects of both family violence theory and feminist theory. Although one could argue that overall, the story emphasizes many more aspects of a family violence theory, aspects of the feminist theory are undeniably present throughout the book as well. To begin, family violence theory can be seen throughout LatusÃ¢â¬â¢ memoir in JanineÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Michael, her relationship with Kurt, and within AmyÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships with Ron Ball and Jim. As family violence theory states, family violence occurs because of societal causes, individual influencing factors (mental illness, substance abuse), and family level causes (Stalans, 2015). Stressful changes and time spent together, for instance, impact violent occurrences according to family violence theory. We see this first in JanineÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Michael. On their ski trip together, increased time together leads to high-tension levels, and soon a comment by Janine leads to a vicious beating at the ski resort (Latus, 147). Later, this is concept is reiterated in her relationship with Kurt, as by the time J. Latus and Kurt are married and living together, the violent/aggressive occurrences begin to increase. Kurt begins getting in JanineÃ¢â¬â¢s face with rage- even when the children are present, he reads her e-mails, and frequently accuses her of flirting with other men on a regular basis, all of which areShow MoreRelatedContributions of Feminist Sociologists to the Study of Family Life1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesContributions of Feminist Sociologists to the Study of Family Life What Is Feminism? In my heart, I think a woman has two choices: either shes a feminist or a masochist. - Gloria Steinem There are three types of feminism - Marxist, Radical and Liberal. All feminists believe in gender socialization, although they all blame different groups of people for women being treated the way they do. Marxist feminists blame society or capitalism, radical feminists blame menRead MoreFeminism : A Feminist Perspective1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseye-opening articles, groundbreaking books, and activism has influenced my intellectual journal through feminist theory. Feminism is a contentious topic with matters that pertain to contemporary feminism, including the following: reproductive rights; equal access to education and employment; marriage equality; violence against women; and the sex trade. While these are only a few of the issues faced by feminists, it is evident that feminism has great value in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. My journey with feminism beganRead MoreApartheid: Theory and Practice During the Apartheid era the international media that highlighted1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesApartheid: Theory and Practice During the Apartheid era the international media that highlighted the unsteady political situation in the country, stressing the political violence and unsteadiness that South Africans had suffered often depicted South -Africa rather pessimi stically. Since the end of the Apartheid policy of racial segregation and with the formation of a new government of national unity, South Africans have sought to build a new, multi-cultural or rainbow nation where the skin colorRead MoreFamily Violence Essay6096 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesFamily violence is not a new phenomenon, as it has essentially existed since the beginning of time. Only in modern times, however have societies begun to recognize violence and family members as a social problem (Barnett, Miller-Perrin Perrin, 2005). For many years, the social problem of family violence had not only been heavily ignored, but for a number of years, had not been fully understood. For example, family violence takes many forms and has a number of different names. Family violence, alsoRead MoreAssessment of the Usefulness of Functionalism in Understanding the Family1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUsefulness of Functionalism in Understanding the Family Functionalism is a structuralist theory. This means it sees the individual as less important as the social structure of society. It is a Ã¢â¬Ëtop downÃ¢â¬â¢ theory. The family can be defined as an intimate domestic group composed of people related to each other by blood, sexual relations and legal ties. When assessing how useful functionalism is when looking at the family, other views/perspectives need to be taken intoRead MoreA Radical- Socialist Feminism with a Postcolonial Approah Essay1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfeminism. After reading Tong (2009) on various feminist theories, I have come to see the different feminist theories in a continuum of the feminist movement. Therefore, these theories cannot be boxed into clear-cut categories that share nothing in common with each other. I will attempt to formulate my own feminist theory using the previous works of feminist scholars as my foundation. In order to explain the application of this theory, I will illuminate a feminist issue. Further, I will present ways to tackleRead MoreChile, A South American Country1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthose 18 million people, 11 million are just consisted of women population. Ever since, Ferdinand Magellan, the first European to set foot on what is now called Chile, women have been neglected of many of their rights. Facing domestic violence and gender-based violence, there are only a few thi ngs that the government Ã¢â¬Å"approvesÃ¢â¬ Chilean women doing. Chileans have experienced a leftist government of Salvador Allende to a military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet also known as General Pinochet. With allRead MoreDefining Intimate Partner Violence ( Ipv )1889 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDaily, families are facing issues that bring challenges to the home regardless if it s violence or not. There are issues such as intimate partner violence (IPV) also known as domestic violence that at times are not reported until it is very late. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as physical violence, sexual violence, stalking and psychological aggression (including coercive tactics) by a current or former intimate partner (i.e. spouse, boyfriend/girlfriendRead MoreDomestic Violence And Immigrant Women1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe student documentary video regarding domestic violence and immigrant women highlighted a significant healt h and a human right problem all over the world. Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, male-development, or deprivationÃ¢â¬ (WHO 2002:4). AccordingRead MoreThe On The Gender Machinery1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconflict had on women and children. The program endorsed gender sensitivity in managing girls and women victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ statements whilst additionally building skill sets for conversing with these women and the distressed witnesses (kjkljklj). In 2006, 34 Family support units provided legal and psychological counselling, emergency health services for the surviving women and girls of GBV during the war. Leading to convictions for Ã¢â¬Å"forced marriagesÃ¢â¬ of girls and women to RUF men. These convictions occurred
Nick was invited to party at GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s place. There, Nick meets up with Jordan Baker and Gatsby. Nick was surprised to meet Gatsby because he had been looking for him at the party all night. Gatsby spoke with Jordan alone and talked for hours, but Jordan was not allowed to tell anyone about their conversation. When everyone was trying to leave the party there was a car accident. Nick discovers that he is not in love with Jordan and finds out that she is a liar. II. Character a. Gatsby- a party host and NickÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbor. He is also DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s lover. b. Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something funny about a fellow thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll do a thing like that, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want any trouble with anybodyÃ¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 43). c. This is a significant quote because it shows that Gatsby is sneaky and he is hiding something. Later the party quests said that he killed a man or he was a German spy in the war. We will write a custom essay sample on Great Gatsby Outline or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Gatsby seems to have a mysterious past. d. Best Quality- Gatsby is good at choosing his words wisely. Worst Quality- He has a bad reputation and tends to make people wonder about him. e. Gatsby is obviously the main character in The Great Gatsby. He interacts with the narrator and with many of the other characters. Everyone knows of Gatsby but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anything about him. He manages to stay mysterious and keeps his business to himself. He is the type of character that makes you want to continue reading the book. III. Meaningful Quote a. Sometime before he introduced himself IÃ¢â¬â¢d got a strong impression that he was picking his words with careÃ¢â¬ (Fitzgerald 48). b. Nick is implying this quote towards Gatsby. This quote tells us that either Nick can read people well, or Gatsby is obvious when he is trying to hide something. IV. Symbol Analysis a. The gas blue dress with lavender beads symbolizes GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. b. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of appearance at the party symbolizes is mysteriousness. Who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make much of an appearance at your own party?
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The Immunology of Aids Introduction Although HIV was first identified in 1983, studies of previously stored blood samples indicate that the virus entered the U.S. population sometime in the late 1970s. Worldwide, an estimated 27.9 million people had become HIV-infected through mid-1996, and 7.7 million had developed AIDS, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS is a disease of the immune system, and is caused by Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV). HIV targets and infects T-helper cells and macrophages. After infection, replication of the virus occurs within the T-helper cells. The cells are lysed and the new viruses are released to infect more T-helper cells. The course of the disease results in the production of massive numbers of virus (1 billion/day) over the full course of the disease. The T- helper cells are infected, and rapidly destroyed both by virus and by cytotoxic T cells. T-helper cells are replaced with nearly a billion produced per day. Over many years (average may be 10), the T-helper cell population is depleted and the body loses its ability to mount an immune response against infections. Thus, we mount a very strong immune response against the virus for a long time, but the virus is produced at a very high rate and ultimately overcomes the ability of the immune system to respond. Since HIV belongs to a class of viruses called retroviruses, it has genes composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules. Like all viruses, HIV can replicate only inside host cells, commandeering the cell's machinery to reproduce. However, only HIV and other retroviruses, once inside a cell, use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert their RNA into DNA, which can be incorporated into the host cell's genes. HIV belongs to a subgroup of retroviruses known as lenti-viruses, or slow viruses. The course of infection with these viruses is characterized by a long interval, up to 12 years or more, between initial infection and the onset of serious symptoms. Like HIV in humans, there are animal viruses that primarily infect the immune system cells, often causing immuno-deficiency and AIDS-like symptoms. Scientists use these and other viruses and their animal hosts as models of HIV disease. The CDC currently defines AIDS when one of 25 conditions indicative of severe immuno-suppression associated with HIV infection, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is present, or HIV infection in an individual with a CD4+ T cell count less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood. However, the question that now remains to be answered is 'How does HIV effectively overcome the human immune system?' In this paper I will try to answer this question. In the first chapter I will explain how HIV is transmitted and what its life cycle looks like. This in order to increase the understanding of how the virus operates. It can be seen as an introductory chapter to the main body of the paper, chapter 2. In the second chapter the specific interactions between the virus and the human immune system will be discussed and shown why its is so threatening. In the last chapter I will deal with certain promising treatments against AIDS. Chapter 1 The Transmission of HIV Among adults, HIV is spread most commonly during sexual intercourse with an infected partner. During sex, the virus can enter the body through the mucosal linings of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum or, very rarely, via the mouth. The likelihood of transmission is increased by factors that may damage these linings, especially other sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers or inflammation. Research suggests that immune system cells called dendritic cells, which reside in the mucosa, may begin the infection process after sexual exposure by binding to and carrying the virus from the site of infection to the lymph nodes where other cells of the immune system become infected. HIV also can be transmitted by contact with infected blood, most often by the sharing of drug needles or syringes contaminated with minute quantities of blood containing the virus. The risk of acquiring HIV from blood transfusions is now extremely small in Western countries, as all blood products in these countries are screened routinely for evidence of the virus. Almost all HIV-infected children acquire the virus from their mothers before or during birth. The anatomy of HIV HIV
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Nucor Corporation in 2001 essays Case Study: A company pursuing growth in a troubled steel industry. The Nucor Corporation competes in a market with limited potential for growth. The future of this organization seems to hold obstacles of insurmountable odds with dwindling windows of opportunity. For decades, the steel industry has been one of the toughest markets on a global scale with most steel corporations ending up in bankruptcy. Foreign competitors, environmental issues, political agendas and technology have had much to with the demise and more so of the success of this industry. Yet, throughout the course that has spanned over five decades Nucor has a solid resolve, an energetic thirst for technology and the willingness to take risks for the betterment of the company. Nucors roots date back to 1955 when an auto manufacturer named Ransom E. Olds, who founded Reo Motor Cars known today as Oldsmobile, sold Reo Motor Cars through a series of transactions to the Nuclear Corporation of America (NCA). NCA was a very diversified company that acquired many high-tech businesses some of which included businesses that made semi-conductors, radiation sensors and air conditioning products. NCA from 1955 to 1965 had eight money losing years, three reorganizations of the company and with their fourth reorganization in the balance, NCA decided to bring in a young man named F. Kenneth Iverson as president and Sam Siegel as vice president of finance. This change of management led to the reconstruction of NCA and adopted the ideas that all non-profitable ventures would be cut lose and the focus of NCA would revolve around its only profitable operation. This operation was in the steel joist industry located in Florence, South Carolina and Norfolk, Nebraska ca lled Vulcraft. NCA in light of this new focus moved its headquarters from Phoenix, Arizona to Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1966 NCA expan...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Definition and Discussion of Enlightenment Rhetoric The expressionÃ Enlightenment rhetoric refers to the study and practice of rhetoric from the mid-seventeenth century to the early part of the nineteenth century. Influential rhetorical works from this period include George Campbells Philosophy of Rhetoric, first published in 1776, and Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, first published in 1783. George Campbell, who lived from 1719 to 1796, was a Scottish minister, theologian, and philosopher of rhetoric. Hugh Blair, who lived from 1718 to 1800, was a Scottish minister, teacher, editor, and rhetorician. Campbell and Blair are just two of the many important figures associated with the Scottish Enlightenment. As Winifred Bryan Horner notes in the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Scottish rhetoric in the 18th century was broadly influential, especially in the formation of the North American composition course as well as in the development of 19th- and 20th-century rhetorical theory and pedagogy. 18th-Century Era of Enlightenment Rhetoric Essays written on rhetoric and style in the 1700s include Of Eloquence by Oliver Goldsmith and Of Simplicity and Refinement in Writing by David Hume. On Conciseness of Style in Writing and Conversation by Vicesimus Knox and Samuel Johnson on the Bugbear Style were also produced during this era. Periods of Western Rhetoric Western rhetoric can be divided into distinct categories: classical rhetoric, medieval rhetoric, Renaissance rhetoric, 19th-century rhetoric, and new rhetoric(s). Bacon and Locke Thomas P. Miller, Eighteenth-Century Rhetoric British advocates of enlightenment grudgingly accepted that while logic could inform the reason, rhetoric was necessary to rouse the will to action. As propounded in [Francis] Bacons Advancement of Learning (1605), this model of the mental faculties established the general frame of reference for efforts to define rhetoric according to the workings of the individual consciousness...Like such successors as [John] Locke, Bacon was a practicing rhetor active in the politics of his time, and his practical experience led him to recognize that rhetoric was an inevitable part of civic life. Although Lockes Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) criticized rhetoric for exploiting the artifices of language to promote factional divisions, Locke himself had lectured on rhetoric at Oxford in 1663, responding to the popular interest in the powers of persuasion that has overcome philosophical reservations about rhetoric in periods of political change. Overview of Rhetoric in the Enlightenment Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg, The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings From Classic Times to the Present Toward the end of the 17th century, traditional rhetoric came to be closely associated with the genres of history, poetry, and literary criticism, the so-called belles lettres - a connection that persisted well into the 19th century. Before the end of the 17th century, however, traditional rhetoric came under attack by adherents of the new science, who claimed that rhetoric obscured the truth by encouraging the use of ornamented rather than plain, direct language...The call for a plain style, taken up by church leaders and influential writers, made perspicuity, or clarity, a watchword in discussions of ideal style during the ensuing centuries. An even more profound and direct influence on rhetoric at the beginning of the 17th century was Francis Bacons theory of psychology...It was not until the middle of the 18th century, however, that a complete psychological or epistemological theory of rhetoric arose, one that focused on appealing to the mental faculties in order to persuade...the elocution movement, which focused on delivery, began early in the 18th century and lasted through the 19th. Lord Chesterfield on the Art of Speaking Lord Chesterfield (Philip Dormer Stanhope), letter to his son Let us return to oratory, or the art of speaking well; which should never be entirely out of your thoughts, since it is so useful in every part of life, and so absolutely necessary in most. A man can make no figure without it, in parliament, in the church, or in the law; and even in common conversation, a man that has acquired an easy and habitual eloquence, who speaks properly and accurately, will have a great advantage over those who speak incorrectly and inelegantly. The business of oratory, as I have told you before, is to persuade people; and you easily feel, that to please people is a great step towards persuading them. You must then, consequently, be sensible how advantageous it is for a man, who speaks in public, whether it be in parliament, in the pulpit, or at the bar (that is, in the courts of law), to please his hearers so much as to gain their attention; which he can never do without the help of oratory. It is not enough to speak the language he speaks in, in its utmost purity, and according to the rules of grammar, but he must speak it elegantly, that is, he must choose the best and most expressive words, and put them in the best order. He should likewise adorn what he says by proper metaphors, similes, and other figures of rhetoric; and he should enliven it, if he can, by quick and sprightly turns of wit. Philosophy of Rhetoric Jeffrey M. Suderman, Orthodoxy and Enlightenment: George Campbell in the Eighteenth Century Modern rhetoricians agree that [George Campbells] Philosophy of Rhetoric pointed the way to the new country, in which the study of human nature would become the foundation of the oratorical arts. A leading historian of British rhetoric has called this work the most important rhetorical text to emerge from the 18th century, and a considerable number of dissertations and articles in specialized journals have eked out the details of Campbells contribution to modern rhetorical theory. Alexander Broadie, The Scottish Enlightenment Reader One cannot go far into rhetoric without encountering the concept of a faculty of the mind, for in any rhetorical exercise the faculties of intellect, imagination, emotion (or passion), and will are exercised. It is therefore natural that George Campbell attends to them in The Philosophy of Rhetoric. These four faculties are appropriately ordered in the above way in rhetorical studies, for the orator first has an idea, whose location is the intellect. By an act of imagination, the idea is then expressed in suitable words. These words produce a response in the form of an emotion in the audience, and the emotion inclines the audience to will the acts that the orator has in mind for them. Arthur E. Walzer, George Campbell: Rhetoric in the Age of Enlightenment While scholars have attended to the 18th-century influences on Campbells work, Campbells debt to the ancient rhetoricians has received less attention. Campbell learned a great deal from the rhetorical tradition and is very much a product of it. Quintilians Institutes of Oratory is the most comprehensive embodiment of classical rhetoric ever written, and Campbell apparently regarded this work with a respect that bordered on reverence. Although the Philosophy of Rhetoric is often presented as paradigmatic of a new rhetoric, Campbell did not intend to challenge Quintilian. Quite the contrary: he sees his work as confirmation of Quintilians view, believing that the psychological insights of 18th-century empiricism would only deepen our appreciation for the classical rhetorical tradition. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres James A. Herrick, The History and Theory of Rhetoric [Hugh] Blair defines style as the peculiar manner in which a man expresses his conceptions, by means of language. Thus, style is for Blair a very broad category of concern. Moreover, style is related to ones manner of thinking. Thus, when we are examining an authors composition, it is, in many cases, extremely difficult to separate the style from the sentiment. Blair was apparently of the opinion, then, that ones style - ones manner of linguistic expression - provided evidence of how one thought. Practical matters..are at the heart of the study of style for Blair. Rhetoric seeks to make a point persuasively. Thus, rhetorical style must attract an audience and present a case clearly. Of perspicuity, or clarity, Blair writes that there is no concern more central to style. After all, if clarity is lacking in a message, all is lost. Claiming that your subject is difficult is no excuse for lack of clarity, according to Blair: if you cant explain a difficult subject clearly, you probably dont understand it...Much of Blairs counsel to his young readers includes such reminders as any words, which do not add some importance to the meaning of a sentence, always spoil it. Winifred Bryan Horner, Eighteenth-Century Rhetoric Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres was adopted at Brown in 1783, at Yale in 1785, at Harvard in 1788, and by the end of the century was the standard text at most American colleges...Blairs concept of taste, an important doctrine of the 18th century, was adopted worldwide in the English-speaking countries. Taste was considered an inborn quality that could be improved through cultivation and study. This concept found a ready acceptance, particularly in the provinces of Scotland and North America, where improvement became a basic tenet, and beauty and good were closely connected. The study of English literature spread as rhetoric turned from a generative to an interpretive study. Finally, rhetoric and criticism became synonymous, and both became sciences with English literature as the observable physical data. Sources Bacon, Francis. Advancement of Learning. Paperback, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, September 11, 2017. Bizzell, Patricia. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings From Classic Times to the Present. Bruce Herzberg, Second Printing Edition, Bedford/St. Martins, February 1990. Blair, Hugh. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, Paperback, BiblioBazaar, July 10, 2009. Broadie, Alexander. The Scottish Enlightenment Reader. Canongate Classic, Paperback, Canongate UK, June 1, 1999. Campbell, George. The Philosophy of Rhetoric, Paperback, University of Michigan Library, January 1, 1838. Goldsmith, Oliver. The Bee: A Collection of Essays. Kindle Edition, HardPress, July 10, 2018. Herrick, James A. The History and Theory of Rhetoric. 6th Edition, Routledge, September 28, 2017. Hume, David. Essay XX: of Simplicity and Refinement in Writing. Online Library of Liberty, 2019. Johnson, Samuel. The Works of Samuel Johnson, LL. D.: An essay on the life and genius of Samuel Johnson. G. Dearborn, 1837. Knox, Vicesimus. Knoxs Essays, Volume 22. J.F. Dove, 1827. Sloane, Thomas O. (Editor). Encyclopedia of Rhetoric. v. 1, Oxford University Press, August 2, 2001. Stanhope, Philip Dormer Earl of Chesterfield. Letters to His Son: On the Fine Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman. Volume 2, M. W. Dunne, 1901. Suderman, Jeffrey M. Orthodoxy and Enlightenment: George Campbell in the Eighteenth Century. McGill-Queens Studies in the Hist of Id, 1st Edition, McGill-Queens University Press, October 16, 2001. Various. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. Theresa Jarnagin Enos (Editor), 1st Edition, Routledge, March 19, 2010. Various. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication from Ancient Times to the Information Age. Theresa Jarnagin Enos (Editor), 1st Edition, Routledge, March 19, 2010. Walzer, Arthur E. George Campbell: Rhetoric in the Age of Enlightenment. Rhetoric in the Modern Era, Southern Illinois University Press, October 10, 2002.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Educational percptions of studying leisure and tourism - Essay Example Research shows that "one reason why young people drop out of college and university is that they haven't chosen a subject that really interests them" (How can parents and careers help to make Vocational education and success 2007). For students within the age range of 14 to 19 understanding Applied Leisure and Tourism, and learning Leisure and Tourism, as a vocational curriculum, offers wider and attractive employment opportunity. Developing awareness and an understanding of general professional issues, in Leisure and Tourism, is crucial in vocational curriculum. Leisure and recreation management is a unique and expansive field for young aspirants of vocational education, which covers many sectors, including sport and fitness, adventure and outdoor tourism, wilderness and national park recreation, even and facility management, and community recreation. As the hotel and hospitality industry moves increasingly from a skill-based to a knowledge-based industry, "higher learning has becom e increasingly critical to opening career doors and helping managers to be fully attuned to the culture, service and competitive aspects of the sector" (Why study Tourism and Leisure Management. 2007). In this perspective whether the educational approach and present curricula meet the requirements of students and employers calls for a critical review. Empowering students to take responsibility for their own learning and personal development is the proper approach of any vocational education. It is also found that "encouragement from parents and carers can make all the difference to a young person's future" as young people drop out of college and university because they haven't chosen a subject that really interests them and parents could help them to choose the subject that motivates them to learn. (How can parents and careers help to make Vocational education and success 2007). To achieve this objective, education modules should be formulated to assess the skills of students, and their attributes the employers look for in such graduates. Major attributes the employers look for are teamwork skills, communication skills, reflection and problem solving skill, giving and receiving feedback, negotiating skills, and responsibility for their own learning. Literary reviews in this respect reveal that "Knowledge and expertise based on exp eriences of combining education, learning and real business activities, are still rarely shared and transferred in modern European education" (Barnes, 2005, p.20). With this realization the government of UK is "considering replacing the current A-level system with an English baccalaureate" with GCSEs as the government's strategy for 14 to 19 year olds. It "will see the cutting back of the curriculum to make space for pupils who want to opt for vocational lessons," so that youngsters disaffected with academic subjects will be able to learn craft skills in an effort to motivate pupils to stay in education. (Vocational options for bored pupils. 2003). The latest proposals for a relevant curriculum envisage that "by offering 14-year-olds the chance to study